quarta-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2009


A gota d'agua - The last straw
A menina dos olhos - The apple of one's eye
Abusar da sorte - Push one's luck
Arregaçar as mangas - Roll up one's sleeves
Bem me quer, mal me quer - She loves me, she loves me not
Colocar (a roupa) do lado do avesso - Put on inside out
Desculpa esfarrapada - Lame excuse
Dou-lhe uma, dou-lhe duas... - Going once, going twice...
Matar o tempo - Kill time
Morrer de rir - Laugh one's head off
Mulherengo - Womanizer
Na ponta de lingua - On the tip of one's tongue
Nascer em berço de ouro - Be born with a silver spoon in one's mouth
Sei lá! - Beats me!
Um mar de rosas - A bed of roses

terça-feira, 1 de dezembro de 2009

Plural de 12 substantivos terminados em F ou FE

Nouns ending in F and FE we change to VES:
They are only 12:

calf - calves
half - halves
knife - knives
leaf - leaves
life - lives
loaf - loaves
self - selves
sheaf - sheaves
shelf - shelves
thief - thieves
wife - wives / housewife - housewives
wolf - wolves

As 9 renas do Papai Noel

Na tradição anglo-saxonica existem oito renas:
Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donder e Blitze.

Posteriormente, acrescentou-se uma outra rena de nome Rudolpho.
Esta tem a particularidade de ter um nariz vermelho que brilha, logo ela é a rena que lidera no trenó, já que consegue iluminar o caminho.
A criação de Rudolpho deu-se em 1939, para um anúncio de Montgomery Ward Company.

Verbos não usados na forma progressiva

Os seguintes verbos não são normalmente usados na forma progressiva
(continuous form):

appear - belong - forget
hate - hear - like - love
notice - possess - realize
recognize - refuse - see
seem - smell - suppose
think - understand
want - wish

Para evitar a forma progressiva devemos usar esses verbos no presente.
E.g.: I understand you now.

A intencionalidade, porém, torna possível a forma progressiva.
E.g.: I'm seeing you tomorrow.
She is smelling that fish.

quarta-feira, 25 de novembro de 2009

Dia de Ação de Graças

Thanksgiving Day:

In the United States:
Thanksgiving is observed on the every fourth Thursday of November. The holiday is celebrated in remembrance of the pilgrims and in order to give thanks.

2007 - Thursday, November 22nd
2008 - Thursday, November 27th
2009 - Thursday, November 26th
2010 - Thursday, November 25th
2011 - Thursday, November 24th

In Canada:
The Canadian Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of the month (the reason for the earlier date in October is their earlier harvest occurring farther to the north).The Canadian holiday comes from different traditions although it is now meant to convey thanks for their harvest.

2007 - Monday, October 8th
2008 - Monday, October 13th
2009 - Monday, October 12th
2010 - Monday, October 11th
2011 - Monday, October 10th

segunda-feira, 23 de novembro de 2009

Quando dobramos as consoantes finais?


We double the final consonant before EST, ER, ED and ING when the word ends in CONSONANT - VOWEL - CONSONANT.
E.g.: stop / stopping - plan / planning - rob / robber - hot / hottest - thin / thinner, etc.

If the word has more than 1 syllable we double that final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed.
E.g.: permit / permitted - prefer / preferring - begin / beginning, etc.

If the final syllable is not stressed we don’t double the final consonant.
E.g.: visit / visiting - listen / listened - remember / remembered, etc.

(If the final syllable is not stressed and the last consonant is L, the consonant may be single or doubled.
E.g.: cancel / canceling or cancelling - travel / traveling or traveling, etc.)

terça-feira, 17 de novembro de 2009

Expressões consideradas como 3ª pessoa do singular

These expressions are considered 3rd person of singular when they are subjects:

each, every, everybody, everyone, somebody, someone, nobody, no one, anybody, anyone, something, little, and much.

E.g.: Everybody LIKES her.
IS everything ready?

THEM, THEY, and THERE are often used with a singular meaning to refer back to someone, etc.

E.g.: If anybody WANTS a ticket for the concert, THEY can get it from my office.
THERE'S somebody at the door. Tell THEM I’m busy.
Someone left THEIR umbrella on the bus.
Nobody phoned, did THEY?

The Mayor of London

The head of the local government of London, elected by the people of London every four years. The role of the Mayor of London is more like that of a US mayor than a traditional British mayor who has almost no political power, and the Mayor has the power to set policies on transport, buildings and land use, culture and the environment. The first Mayor of London was Ken Livingstone, who was elected in 2000 and re-elected in 2004. The City of London, the financial district, also has a mayor who is called the Lord Mayor of the City of London. The first one was appointed in 1192.

New Year's Eve

In Britain and America many people have parties on New Year's Eve (31st December). Traditionally people in Britain hold hands and sing 'Auld Lang Syne' at midnight at parties and wish each other 'Happy New Year'. Auld Lang Syne is an old Scottish song about friendship and remembering good times in the past. The title means 'old long since'. In large cities many people gather in public places such as Trafalgar Square in London, Princes Street in Edinburgh, and George Square in Glasgow. In Scotland the celebration of the New year is called Hogmanay. New Year's Day (1st January) is a bank holiday in Britain.

The Union Jack

The Union Jack is the popular name for the flag of the United Kingdom. The word 'jack' is a word sailors use for a flag. It has been the British flag since 1603 when Scotland and England joined together. The design contains the red cross of England, and Scotland's white diagonal cross on a blue background. When Ireland joined the United Kingdom in 1801 its red diagonal cross was also added. The national flag of Wales is a red dragon, but it is not used on the Union Jack because Wales is a 'principality' of England, meaning that it is ruled by an English prince.

The American Dialect

The nearest dialect to a standard American English is General American English. This is spoken mostly in the Midwest, but also in other parts. The main dialect groups are the Northern, the Coastal Southern, the Midland, and the Western. The main differences between them are in accent, but there are some differences in words too. Some old and rich families in Boston speak in a way that is very similar to Britain's standard dialect, called RP, or 'Received Pronunciation'.

The Houses of Parliament

In the United Kingdom, Parliament is responsible for making laws, discussing important national issues, and raising taxes. The three parts of Parliament are the King or Queen, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. All three parts need to agree for a law to be passed, but today the King or Queen's agreement is given automatically. The British people elect the Members of Parliament (MPs) who make up the House of Commons. The people in the House of Lords, who are called peers, are not chosen by the people. The House of Commons has more power than the House of Lords.

American English

British people who went to live in the US in the seventeenth century came from different parts of Britain and so spoke different dialects, with slightly different words and pronunciation. In the US their language changed in its own way and so is not like British English today. New words were added to the language for things that were only found in the US, like plants, animals and food. Many of these new words came from the native American Indian languages; Dutch and French people also went to live there and added their words, and in the 19th and 20th century immigrants from all over the world have influenced the language.

The Empire State Building-breve história

New York City has 140 skyscrapers, more than any other city in the world. Chicago is the second with 68. The Empire State Building in New York, which was the tallest building in the world for over 40 years, was built in 1931. It is 381 metres high and has 102 floors. On a clear day you can see five different states from the top of the Empire State Building, and it would take 11 Empire State Buildings to fill the Gulf of Mexico at its deepest point. The tallest buildings in the world today are the Petronas Towers in Malaysia, which are 452 metres tall.

Centavos do dolar americano - nome dos

American coins:
0.01 - 1 cent - a penny
0.05 - 5 cents - a nickel
0.10 - 10 cents - a dime
0.25 - 25 cents - a quarter
0.50 - 50 cents - a half-dollar

Libra esterlina

£ 1 (one pound) = 100 pence
1 p = 1 pence

How much?
It’s 1 pound fifty (£ 1.50)
It’s fifty pence (50 p)

Americanos e Indios - De onde vem os nomes?

American Settlers
America was named after an Italian businessman called Amerigo Vespucci, who sailed to South America between 1499 and 1502. Christopher Columbus called the Native Americans 'Indians' because he thought he had reached India. It was only in the 16th century that people from France, Spain and Britain started to live in North America. Today the population of the US is over 284 million.

Who 'invented' the police?

The police evolved from an organized, uniformed group of men who were employed in mid 18th century in London, England, to catch criminals. They were called the 'Bow Street Runners' because they operated from the Magistrate's Court in Bow Street in London.

In 1829 a politician called Sir Robert Peel took over control of the 'Runners' and formed the London Metropolitan Police Force. In those days police constables were often called 'Peelers' after Sir Robert Peel. Even today police officers are sometimes referred to as 'Bobbies' because Bobby is a diminutive of the name Robert.

Soon after 1829 Sir Robert's Metropolitan Police Force was copied by nearly all the important cities in the United Kingdom and since then many countries all over the world have adopted the practice of having a police force.

What do the Police do? Apart from arresting criminals, policing Britain also involves investigating crimes, both large and small, keeping the peace, controlling riots and civil unrest, directing lost tourists, dealing with domestic violence, clearing up car accidents, detaining drunk drivers, dealing with property found in the street, arranging for stolen items to be returned to their owners, dealing with the victims of crime, regulating crowds at football matches - the list goes on and on!

The general aim is not only to investigate crimes and apprehend criminals but also to prevent crime by raising public awareness of the types of crimes people may be susceptible to - advising members of the public about how to protect their cars, their homes, their property and themselves. Ultimately the police are there to prevent crime from happening at all, if possible!

When a person joins the police in England he or she swears allegiance to the Queen, not the government (although the Home Secretary is responsible for the police) and swears to serve the public (i.e. to work for the people, not against them).

What is a Police State?A Police State is one in which the police force may be secret. It is controlled by the government and it carries out the orders of the politicians. Living in a Police State means that your freedom is limited and often the right to free speech does not exist. You may not be free to travel around and it may be risky to express opinions if they conflict with those of the government. The police in a Police State work for the government, not the people.


Dentre as interjeições inglesas, citaremos as seguintes:

Look out! Take care! (Cuidado!)

Aha! há! Ha! Hey-day! (oba! Opa!)
Hurrah! Just my luck! (Que sorte a minha!)
What a bit of luck! (Que sorte!)

Be of good cheer! (Tenha ânimo!)
Cheer up! Cheerio! Come out! (Ânimo!)
Forward! (Avante!)
Go ahead! (Vamos!)

Ahem! (Atenção!)
Help! (Socorro!)
Halloo! Hark! Hello! (Alô)
Lend me your ears! (Ouça-me!)
Helloa! Hey! (Olá!)
Hi! Hist! (Psiu! Psit!)
Hoost! (Alô)
Listen! I say! (Escute)
Look! Look here! (Olhe!)
Oyez! Oyes! O yes! Take notice! (Note bem!)
See! Soho!

All right! Be it so! Bravo! Encore! (Bis!)
Fine! Good! Hear! Hear! (Apoiado!)
How nice! How very pleasant! Long live! (Viva!)
Right-o! Right you are! So far so good! Three cheers for...! (Três vivas para...)!
Well done! (Bravo!)

Would that it were so! (Oxalá!)
Would to God! (Queira Deus!)

A fig! (Favas para você!)
Bah! (Ora bolas!)
Fiddlededee! Fiddlesticks! (Ora pipocas!)
Hang it! Humbug! (Conversa fiada!)
Nonsense! (Bobagem!)
What of that? ((E daí?)
What's the odds! (Que importa isso!)
Shame! (Que vergonha!)
Pshaw! (Ora!)

Ah! Ah me! Alack! Alack-a-day! Alas! Alas and alack! Heigh-to! (Ai de mim!)
What a pity! (Que pena!)
Ouch! (Ai! Ui!)
Well! Well! Well! Woe is me! (Pobre de mim!)
Gracious Heavens! Good Lord! (Céus!)

Bless my heart! Bless my soul! (Valha-me Deus!)
By Jove! Can such things be! (Não é possível!)
Dear me! Gracious! My goodness me! Well I never! Heaven save the mark! Ho! Hoity-toity!
How now! (E agora!)
Lo and behold! (Vejam só!)
Man alive! My! (Ué! Ué! Uai!)
My stars! My Hat! (Papagaio!)
Now then! (Era só o que faltava!)
Oh! Oho! Only think! (Vejam só!)
Well I'm blest! (Macacos me mordam!)
Well I'm blowed! (Estou perdido!)
What! What do you say to that! (E agora!)
Where I am! (Onde estamos!)
You don't say so! (Não me diga!)

Dash it all! (Com a breca!)
Oh bother! (Não me amoles!)
What a nuisance! (Que estopada!)
Blast! (Com a breca!)

Be quiet! Be silent! Dry up! Hist! Hold your row! Hold your tongue! (Bico calado!)
Hush! Hust! Mind! Mum! Mum's the world! (Pede-se silêncio!)
Psht! Sh! Shut up! (Cale-se!)
Stop the noise! Tush! Whist! (Calada!)

Faugh! Fie! For shame! Fudge! Oust! Out! Out with him! (Fora com ele!)
Pugh! Pooh! Shocking! (Que horror!)
Tut-tut! Ugh! Whew! Woe be to you! (Raios te partam!)

All hail! (Salve!)
Cheer up! Cheerio! (Ora viva!)

Halt! Stop! (Alto! Pare!)

Verbos Irregulares - relação dos

arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burned burned or burnt burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
can could
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost or costed costed
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived dived or dove (AM)
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed dreamed or dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
get got got or gotten (AM)
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown

hang hung hung or hanged hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt or kneeled kneeled
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned leaned or leant leant
leap leaped leaped or leapt leapt
learn learned learned or learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit or lighted lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
may might
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone shone or shined shined
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slepts
slide slid slid
smell smelled smelled or smelt smelt
speak spoke spoken
speed speeded speeded or sped sped
spell spelled or spelled or spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled spilled or spilt spilt
spit spat spat or spit spit (AM)
spoil spoiled spoiled or spoilt spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck or stricken
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
wake woke woken or waked (AM)
wear wore worn
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
write wrote written

RAISE/RISE/LIE/LAY/ARISE/AROUSE - Verbos que confundem

RAISE, raised, raised = to go up, to put up.
It needs an object (transitive verb).
E.g.: They raised the prices.
I usually raise my hand in class.

RISE, rose, risen = to go up.

It doesn’t need an object (intransitive verb).
E.g.: The sun rises.
Prices keep rising.

LIE, lay, lain (lying) = to be in a horizontal position; to be placed.

It doesn’t need a complement.
( + in / on / down )
E.g.: I often lie down after lunch.

Brazil lies in South America.

LIE, lied, lied (lying) = to tell things that are not true.
E.g.: You lied to me when you said you loved me.

LAY, laid, laid (laying) = to put down. It needs an object.

( + down / on / over ).
E.g.: He never lays the books down on the table.
She laid the child on the bed.
A chicken lays eggs.
I usually lay a table (= set).
She is laying a blanket over his body now.

ARISE, arose, arisen = begin; appear, come to one’s notice.
It’s used mostly with abstract nouns.
E.g.: A discussion arose about the best way to pay.
I’m afraid a difficulty has arisen.

ROUSE, roused, roused = to make somebody interested,
excited, suspicious, sympathy, etc.; to wake up.
E.g.: Professor Borg’s speech failed to rouse his audience.

AROUSE, arouse, aroused ( = ROUSE ).
It’s often used with an abstract word as an object.
E.g.: It began to arouse her suspicious.

Note: Arouse can be used in a sexual sense.

quinta-feira, 12 de novembro de 2009

Dias da Semana

Days of the Week

Notice that "weekdays" and "days of the week" are not the same.
"Days of the week" are all 7 days from Monday to Sunday.
"Weekdays" are only the 5 days from Monday to Friday
The "weekend" is Saturday and Sunday.

Day / Abbreviation

Monday - Mon. / Mo.
Tuesday - Tue. / Tu.
Wednesday - Wed. / We.
Thursday - Thu. / Th.
Friday - Fri. / Fr.

Saturday - Sat. / Sa.
Sunday - Sun. / Su.

Ordem dos adjetivos

Style – Color – Material + noun .
We don’t usually have more than 3 adjectives in a sentence, but if so we should use the order below:


E.g.: That is the beautiful, big, round, 40 years old, blue, Spanish, wood, for my son’s birthday toy.

Tipos de pão

Roll bread; French bread = pão do tipo baguette ou o frances
Rye bread; Brown bread = pão de centeio
Maize cake = pão de milho
Whole bread; Coarse bread = pão integral
Bread crumb = miolo de pão
Crumb = migalha de pão
Bran = farelo
Sponge-cake = pão de ló
Sandwich loaf; Loaf of bread = pão de forma
Home-made bread = pão feito em casa
Bun = pão de passas ou brioche
Toast = torrada

quarta-feira, 11 de novembro de 2009

Profissões - Os 4 sufixos para algumas delas

analyst; annalist
copyst; scribe ( = escrevente)
pugilist; boxer

adviser; consultant
housekeeper; governess
newspaper saller
auctioneer ( = leiloeiro)
mariner; sailor; seaman
bouncer ( = leão de chácara)
builder; constructor
boxer; pugilist
trader; dealer ( = comerciante)
fire fighter
personal trainer
buyer; purchaser
real estate broker ( = corretor de imóveis)
probationer; trainee

sailor; seaman; mariner
arbitrator ( = arbitro)
constructor; builder

bell captain

Other jobs
pantryman ( = copeiro)
commercial employée ( = comerciario)
theatre impresario
shoeblack; bootblack ( = engraxate)
lifeguard ( = salva-vidas)
bodyguard ( = guarda costas)
night-watchman ( = guarda noturno)
lumberjack; lumberman ( = lenhador)
construction foreman ( = mestre de obras)
fisherman ( = pecador)
milkmaid ( = leiteiro)
pop star
flight attendant; air steward ( = comissario de bordo)
clerk ( = escriturario)
stock room clerk ( = almoxarife)
sale clerk ( = balconista)
bank clerk ( = bancario)
boatman ( = barqueiro)
foreman ( = capataz)
traveling salesman ( = caixeiro viajante)
nunny; nursemaid

Regras para palavras com final Y

Y Rules

Words ending in consonant + Y: Y changes to IE
study – studied, family – families,
easy – easier, heavy – heavily

Y doesn’t change before ING
study – studying

Y doesn’t change if the word ends in vowel + Y
enjoy – enjoys


day – daily,

pay – paid,
say – said

Verbs ending in IE: before ING it changes to Y

lie – lying,
die – dying,
tie – tying

terça-feira, 10 de novembro de 2009

Pronomes interrogativos

Interrogative Pronouns

WHAT - qual, quais, o que
What is your occupation?
What is it?

WHAT ABOUT - que tal
What about going to the theater?

WHAT ... LIKE - Expressão usada para perguntar sobre aspectos geográficos, físicos ou psicológicos.
What is São Paulo like? (Como é São Paulo?)
What was the weather like?(Como estava o tempo?)
What are the people like in Petropolis? They are friendly.

WHICH - qual, quais, o que. Usado quando se solicita uma escolha entre dois ou mais elementos.
Which is his favorite sport: soccer or basketball? He prefers soccer.

WHO - quem (usado como sujeito da oração).
Who are you? I’m Denise.

WHOM - quem (usado como objeto direto ou indireto da oração. Ele é obrigatório após uma preposição).
With whom were you talking?
Se a preposição vier no final da oração, usa-se tanto Who quanto Whom.
Whom were you talking with?Who were you talking with?

WHERE - onde
Where were they going to?

WHEN - quando
When was she born? She was born on October 6th.

WHY - por que. Na resposta, usa-se BECAUSE.
Why do people worry? Because they need jobs.

WHOSE - de quem, a quem pertence
Whose picture is this? / Whose is this picture?
OBS.:Quando WHAT, WHICH, WHO e WHOSE forem o sujeito numa oração interrogativa,
o verbo auxiliar não será usado, ou seja:
WHAT/WHICH/WHO/WHOSE + verbo ou substantivo = Não usar auxiliar
What causes infections?
Who came for dinner?
Whose dog barks all the time?
Which computer is bigger, mine or yours?

How – quando se quer saber de que maneira. Como?
How does he drive? He drives carefully.

How much – Quanto é? (preço)
How much is that purse? It’s 75 reais.

How many – usado para se saber a quantidade (com o substantivo no plural)
How many windows are there in the living? There are a lot.

How much – usado para se saber a quantidade (com substantivos incontáveis: portanto use
no singular)
How much water is there in the bottle? There is a lot.

How long – Quanto tempo?
How long does it take to go to Rio? It takes 1 hour.

How often – Com que fequencia?
How often do you go to the beach? I sometimes go to the beach.

quarta-feira, 4 de novembro de 2009

Gírias 1 (SLANGS)

cafona - cheesy
bicha enrustida - queen
bicha - sissy
atrevido - sassy (US)
azarar - to hit on somebody (US)
não - nope
foto - pic
grogue - woozy
leão-de-chácara - bouncer
garanhão - stud
garoto de programa - rent boy (UK)
mamado, bêbado - assholed (US); arseholed (UK)
chique - posh
Cale a boca! - Can it!
Dane-se! Cai fora! - Bite me!
mancada - goof
fulano - thingy
pun - fart
levar pau - to flunk
dolar - buck (US)
libra esterlina - quid (UK)
mais ou menos - ish
urinar - to pee
vomitar - to barf
zoeira - to-do
chifrar - to two-time

terça-feira, 3 de novembro de 2009

Entrevista - prováveis perguntas

1. Where did you study?
2. What did you major / take courses / specialize / graduate in?
3. Have you taken other courses?
4. Did you do an internship?
5. Have you ever lived abroad?
6. When did you start working?
7. Were you in charge of anything?
8. Why did you leave your last job? How did you start working there?
9. Why don’t you tell me a little about your background?
10. Tell me about your previous experience.
11. Why are you attracted to that company/country?
12. What was it that attracted you to that position?
13. Have you ever worked with people from other countries?
14. Do you have any experience with computers?
15. How good are you at working with teams?
16. What’s your e-mail? Address?
17. Are you married? Are you going to travel alone?
18. Does your wife speak English? What about you? (fluently?)
19. Would she rather work or stay home?
20. Do you have children? Are you planning to have any soon? (Why not?)
21. Why did you decide to work abroad? Why does this company?
22. Does Brazil usually give opportunities to its people?
23. Do you believe you’re going to be happy there? Why?
24. What does your family/wife say about your decision of living abroad?
25. How soon can you start?
26. How long have you been (your profession)?
27. Would you like to come back to your country?
28. When did you get your first job?

segunda-feira, 2 de novembro de 2009

PHRASAL VERBS - Adverb meanings

DOWN = becoming less. Turning down the music; Bring down the cost of living.
DOWN = completely to the ground. Knock a house down; Cut down a tree.
DOWN = stopping completely. The car broke down; A factory closing down.
DOWN = on paper. Copy down the words; Write down the message;
OFF = to be reduced in effect, away, departing. Set off on a journey; Jump in the car and drive off ; See Denise off at the station; The plane took off; The pain is wearing off.
OFF = disconnected. Switch off the heater; Cut off the heater; Cut off our electricity;
ON = connected. Switch on the light; Turn on the TV; Leave the lights on all night.
ON = wearing. Put a coat on; Try the sweater on.
ON = continuing. Carry on working; Drive on a bit further; Hold on a minute.
OUT = away, disappearing. Wash out the dirty; Cross out a mistake; Blow out the candle.
OUT = to different people. Hand out free tickets; Share out the winnings.
OUT = aloud. Read out the article; Call out anxiously.
OUT = from start to finish. Write out the whole list; Work out the answer.
OVER = from start to finish. Check your work over; Think the problem over.
UP = increasing. Prices are going up; Put up taxes; Speak up so we can hear.
UP = completely. Eat up these chocolates; Fill up with petrol.

Weight - abreviações

"Weight" tells us how heavy something is (or how much it weighs). There are basically two systems in use in English-speaking countries.

Metric Weights - The metric system is used in many countries of the world.

Abbreviation British Equivalent
1000 milligrams = 1 gram g - 0.035 oz
1000 grams = 1 kilogram kg - 2.21 lb
1000 kilograms = 1 tonne t - 0.98 tons

Abbreviation Metric Equivalent
16 drams = 1 ounce - oz - 28.35 g
16 ounces = 1 pound - lb - 0.454 kg

14 pounds = 1 stone - st - 6.35 kg

Audiencia: em português são 3 significados, mas e em inglês?

Esse substantivo é comumente empregado para referir-se a “público ou platéia de show ou concerto”. Pode ser também traduzido por “audiência” no sentido de “reunião formal com alguém muito importante”, como o papa, o presidente ou um rei.
The audience cheered as the rock band came on stage. (A platéia vibrou quando a banda de rock subiu ao palco )

Como dizer “audiência” para referir-se a “sessão de tribunal em que testemunhas são ouvidas”? Podemos empregar os termos COURT HEARING ou COURT SESSION:
“Since one of the witnesses was not present, a new court hearing was scheduled for next Friday”, explained the lawyer. (“Como uma das testemunhas não estava presente, uma nova audiência foi marcada para a próxima sexta”, explicou o advogado).

No sentido de “ibope de programa de TV ou rádio”, RATINGS é a palavra apropriada:
The TV network executives are not at all satisfied with the ratings the new talk show has been getting. (Os executivos da rede de TV não estão nada satisfeitos com a audiência que o novo talk show está obtendo).


Você está se sentindo on top of the world e cheio de alegria ou deprimido e down in the dumps?
Aqui está uma lista de expressões populares que você pode usar para dizer às pessoas como você se sente.

Bent out of shape - Se você ficasse bent out of shape com alguma coisa, você se machucaria? Bem, não fisicamente! Essa expressão significa que uma pessoa está se sentindo muito aborrecida ou nervosa: "She got bent out of shape over the new boss at work."

On cloud nine - Quando alguém está on cloud nine, quer dizer que ele ou ela está extremamente feliz. Por exemplo, "When he finally proposed to her, she was on cloud nine."

Totally spaced out - Seus amigos estão tentando chamar sua atenção a mais de dez minutos, e você nem percebeu. Qual é a sua desculpa? Diga que você estava totally spaced out e sonhando acordado.

Shaken up - Depois de receber notícias surpreendentes ou ter uma experiência inesperada, você pode se sentir um pouco shaken up. Por exemplo, "After the accident she was completely shaken up."

On pins and needles. - Quando as pessoas dizem que estão on pins and needles, elas não estão falando de acunpultura. Quer dizer que estão nervosas ou ansiosas. Por exemplo, "The movie was so suspenseful, I was on pins and needles the whole time!"

Beat/Bushed. Da próxima vez que alguém lhe perguntar como você está se sentindo após um dia longo e cansativo, você pode lhes dizer que se sente beat ou bushed. Esta é uma outra maneira de dizer que está exausto. Uma desculpa perfeita para não lavar a louça!

Head over heels - Todos lhe perguntam porque você anda tão feliz. Você pode lhes dizer que está head over heels in love! Esta é uma expressão popular para descrever aquele sentimento de estar totalmente apaixonado por alguém. Você também pode dizer que está madly in love.

Fed up - Quando você está se sentindo muito frustrado com alguma coisa e não quer mais saber dela, você pode dizer às pessoas que está completely fed up! Se você for muito mal atendido em um restaurante, por exemplo, você pode dizer, "I am completely fed up with your service!"

Chill out - Se seus amigos acham que você está exagerando um problema pequeno, eles podem lhe dizer para chill out. Este é um jeito coloquial de dizer às pessoas para relaxar: "Stop worrying about it and just chill out."

Under the weather - Se você está doente ou não está se sentindo bem, apenas diga que você está under the weather. Por exemplo, "John's feeling a bit under the weather tonight, so he won't be joining us for dinner."

domingo, 1 de novembro de 2009

Apelidos em Inglês

Some nicknames:

Bob – Robert
Bill – William
Tony – Anthony
Nick – Nicholas
Rob – Robert, Robin
Cathy – Catherine
Andy – Andrew
Liz – Elizabeth
Dave – David
Di – Diane, Diana
Mike – Michael
Matt – Matthew
Harry – Henry, Harold
Sue – Susan
Al – Alan, Alexander, Alistair
Chris – Christopher

Símbolo das cartas do baralho

Club (Paus) / Heart (Copas) / Spade (Espadas) / Diamond (Ouros)

J = Jack of …
Q = Queen of …
K = King of …
A = Ace of …

Numbers for Mathematics

Numbers for Mathematics:

Can you add, subtract, and do your multiplication tables in English? Before you can do the math you need to understand the question. Learning English for math means learning numbers, words, and symbols.

Addition:1 + 2 = 3 One plus two equals three. / One and two is three.

Subtraction:7 - 6 = 1 Seven minus six equals one. / Seven
subtract six is one.

Multiplication:5 x 6 = 30 Five times six equals thirty. / Five multiplied by six is thirty.

Division:6 ÷ 3 = 2 Six divided by three equals two. / Three goes into six two times.

The short form of "mathematics" in British English is maths and in American English is math.

Other Maths symbols:
<> greater than
1/4 fractions
% percent
90° degrees

Numerical expressions


1/8 an/one eighth
1/4 a/one quarter
1/40 a/one fortieth
1/3 a/one third
1/2 a/one half
3/4 three quarters
5 1/2 five and a half
13 3/4 thirteen and three quarters

Nome dos 9 planetas

Mercury – Venus – Earth – Mars – Jupiter

Saturn -Uranus – Neptune – Pluto

Branca de Neve e os 7 anões

SNOW WHITE and the Seven Dwarfs:

Happy, Sleepy, Bashful (timid), Dopey
Grumpy (bad-humored), Sneeze (Atchin) and Doc.

EVIL QUEEN ( she is the stepmother )

Os 7 pecados capitais

greed – gluttony – wrath – envy – sloth – pride – lust


, comma
. period
. stop
. full stop
. dot/point
; semicolon
__ dash
: colon
( ) parentheses
[ ] brackets
! exclamation mark
? interrogation mark
_ hyphen
“ ” quotation marks (or inverted commas)
´ apostrophe
/ connecting rod ( or slash or forward slash)
\ backslash
... reticence
@ at

Os signos em Inglês

Astrlogical Signs:
Leo – Pisces – Aquarius – Gemini – Aries – Libra – Cancer - Scorpio - Sagittarius – Virgo – Capricorn – Taurus

Some abbreviations

UNESCO-United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
NASA-National Aeronautics and Space Administration
LASER-Light Amplification Stimulation Emission Radiation
the BBC-the British Broadcasting Corporation
P.O. -Post Office
W.H.O. -World Health Organization
U.N. -United Nations
U.F.O. -Unidentified Flying Object
E.S.L. -English as a second language
G.O.P. -Grand Old Party (the Republican party in the US politics)
L.A. -Los Angeles
CIA-Central Intelligence Administration

Regras para o plural regular das palavras em Inglês

1) In general we add S to substantive: scientist – scientists

2) Substantive ending in S, SS, SH, CH, X E Z we add ES: box – boxes

3) Substantive ending in Y preceded by a consonant: history – histories

4) Substantive ending in O preceded by a consonant: tomato – tomatoes

5) Substantive ending in F and FE we change to VES: life – lives
They are only 12: calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife and wolf.

Nacionalidades em Inglês

Some nationalities:


New Zealand-New Zealander
Turkey-Turkish / Turk

Como podem notar os sufixos são sempre os mesmos: an, ese, sh, ss, ch and ai. E não se esqueçam: As nacionalidades começam sempre com letra maiúscula.

Diferenças na escrita-Inglês dos EUA e da Inglaterra

Common differences of spelling - British and American English
First: British English
Second: American English
all right
all right, alright (disputed)
criticise, criticize
jewellery, jewelry
judgement, judgment
license, licence (verb) licence (noun)
license (verb) license (noun)
practise (verb) practice (noun)
practice (verb) practice (noun)
realise, realize
travelled, travelling
travelled, travelling, traveled, traveling

Quem faz parte do Reino Unido?

UNITED KINGDOM: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.
Elizabeth II is their Queen.

GREAT BRITAIN: England, Scotland and Wales.

Republic of Ireland (in the South) does not take part by any denomination above.
It is independent. THE UNION JACK is the popular name for the flag of the United Kingdom. The word “jack” is a word, which sailors use for a flag. It has been the British flag since 1603 when Scotland and England joined. The design contains the red cross of England, and Scotland’s white diagonal cross on a blue background. When Ireland joined the United Kingdom in 1801, its red diagonal cross was also added. The national flag of Wales is a red dragon, but it is not used on the Union Jack because Wales is a “principality” of England, meaning that is a ruled by an English prince.

Bandeira americana - uma rapida historia

The American Flag has 2 names: the Star and Stripes or Old Glory.
It has been the flag of the US since 1777, after America became independent from Britain. George Washington had the flag made to encourage his soldiers in their flight against the British. There were originally 13 states in the US, so the flag had 13 stripes, seven red and seven white, and 13 white stars. When new states joined to the US, a new star was added. Today there are 50 stars on the flag.

Curriculo em Inglês-como preparar

23 years old, single, Brazilian.
111 Felipe Blat Street - Centenário
Petrópolis – RJ - Brazil - CEP .....
telephone: 55 24 00000000
E-mail: .....

Student of (business administration) at University of ....

Professional experiences:
1) Dr Chryslo do Brasil - Trainee
I worked at the Quality Area, giving the support for the integration of the systems ISO16949, ISO 14000 and OHSAS 18001 through the elaboration, control and document normalization;
(Rio de Janeiro-RJ)
From August / 2005 to August / 2006

2) Center Telecomunicações - Trainee
I worked at the Telemarketing Area attending to customers;
(Rio de Janeiro-RJ)
From March/ 2005 to August/ 2005

3) Casalinda Ind. E Com. de Azulejos LTDA - Trainee
Organization and control of supplies;
(Rio de Janeiro – RJ)
From August /2001 to December/2001

Common knowledge:
Ø Course of extension in Planning and Control of Production CEPUERJ
Production Centre of the State University of Rio de Janeiro;
Ø 4 years studying English at (IPS);
Ø Mathematics course at (………..) for 4 years;
Ø Computer –Package Office and Internet;

Você sabe realmente quantos Estados os EUA tem? Nem eles.

50 states and 1 district?
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
Different opinions:
1) There are really 48 states because they don’t count Hawaii and Alaska as states there, in the USA.
2) There aren’t 50 states. Massachusetts and Kentucky are Commonwealths ( = Comunidade Britanica)
3) There are at least two Republics and 4 Commonwealths in the United States, that would leave 44 'States' plus the District of Columbia if you choose to include that as well.
4) You all agreed that DC is a district. Well, officially Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Virginia, and Massachusetts are all commonwealths. Further more, if these commonwealths, which are political units having local autonomy but voluntarily united with the U.S., are included as part of the United States, then are Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands considered 51 & 52?
5) The District of Columbia has the same laws and rights that the other 50 do, so why must we discriminate? It is a state too.
6) 52 states. Hawaii is the 50th State, Alaska and New Mexico are the last two states.
7) 4 Commonwealths, one District, and 46 states
8) 49. Hawaii is not a state. Clinton Confirmed it back in he 90's in the United Nations.
9) There are only 42 states. If you think about it they are all classified as states, but 7 aren’t recognized by the government therefore they don’t have a state university. All the government recognized states have a university such as the University of Alabama or the University of California. Maine, Rhode Island, Vermont, they all do not have a university.
10) There are only 46 states and one district. In addition there are also 4 commonwealths (Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Virginia)

To sum up: what's the correct answer? They even don't know.

sexta-feira, 30 de outubro de 2009

Abreviaturas na WEB para e-mails e mensagens de texto.

121 One-to-one
2L8 too late
4 for
4GET forget
AFAIK as far as I know
AFK away from keyboard

AKA also known as
ASAP as soon as possible
ATM at the moment
AYF all your fault
B4 before
B4N bye for now
BAK back at keyboard
BBIAB be back in a bit
BBL be back later
BF boyfriend
BQ beyond question
BRB be right back
BTW by the way
BTDT been there, done that
BYP beg your pardon

CLD could
CU see you / cracking up
CUL or CUL8R see you later /catch you later

CUZ because
CYA see ya
FAQ frequently asked question

FFY fend for yourself
FOCL falling off chair laughing

F2T free to talk
FYI for your information
GF girlfriend
GFC going for coffee
GMAB give me a break
GMTA great minds think alike

GR8 great
HAND have a nice day

HTH hope this helps
IDK I don’t know
IKWUM I know what you mean

ILUVU I love you
IMHO in my humble opinion
JAM just a minute
JAS just a second
JIC just in case
J/K just kidding
L8R later
LB(G)R little boys/girls room (bathroom break)

LMAO laughing my ass off
LOL laugh out loud
LSHITIWMP laughing so hard I think I wet my pants

LUV love
M8 mate

M/F male or female
MLNW make love not war

MYOB mind your own business
NE1 anyone
NIFOC nude in front of the computer
NM never mind
NP no problem
NRN no reply necessary
OMG Oh my God

OIC oh, I see
OTOH on the other hand
P? Pardon?

P2P person-to-person
PLZ ou PLS please
PPL people

PM private message
PRHPS perhaps
ROFL rolling on the floor laughing
RUOK? Are you ok?
SOY shame on you
SUP what’s up

SYL see you later
SYS see you soon
SWALK sealed with a loving kiss (end of e-mail)
TAFN that’s all for now

TGIF thank goodness it's Friday
TIA thanks in advance

TNX thanks
THNK ou THNQ thank you
THX thanks

TTFN ta ta for now
TTYL talk to you later
UBB urgent bathroom break

WAN2TLK? want to talk?
W8 wait
W8N waiting
WB welcome back
WBS write back soon

WKND weekend
WN? what now? / what next?

WRT with regard to
XOXO hugs and kisses

XX kisses
Y why

YR your

Historia do Halloween

Doces ou Travessuras?! Abóbora, Mascara, Bruxas, Fantasma?!
Como surgiu este costume? Os doces, as travessuras, os costumes, as fantasias usadas no halloween, os cartões, as máscaras, uma cultura americana que vem se espalhando pelo mundo inteiro. A festa mais popular nos Estados Unidos depois do Natal e o Dia de Ação de Graças.
Provavelmente vem em sua mente um costume dos americanos com crianças se divertindo com "doces ou travessuras" (trick-or-treat), adultos com fantasias de bruxas, fantasmas, caveiras e máscaras assustadoras representando os mortos, e claro, as tradicionais abóboras. Mas perguntamos se você conhece a conexão do Cristianismo com este dia sagrado?
As origens do "Halloween" vem de antigas tribos Celtas que viviam na Irlanda, Escócia, etc. Para os Celtas o dia 1º de novembro marcava o início do Ano Novo e a chegada do inverno. Na passagem do Ano Novo eles celebravam o festival de "Samhain", o Lorde da Morte.
Nesta comemoração os Celtas acreditavam que as almas dos seus entes queridos mortos, vagavam por todo o ambiente, incluindo também os fantasmas e as bruxas. A fim de espantar os espíritos considerados maus eles usavam mascaras, faziam pequenas fogueiras e esculpiam o nabo (naquela época utilizavam o nabo no lugar da abóbora) colocando no mesmo uma chama. Quando os Romanos conquistaram os Celtas eles assimilaram o festival de Samhain, adaptaram a sua cultura e dentre diversas mudanças, uma em especial foi que passaram a tomar cidra neste dia, tradição esta que pode nos parecer familiar pois em nossa passagem de ano é tradição também tomar cidra. Em 835 o Papa Gregório IV transformou a celebração de Samhain para a comemoração do dia de todos os Mártires e mais tarde para o dia de Todos os Santos, que naquela época era comemorada no dia 13 de maio e passou para 1º de novembro. A noite anterior 31 de outubro ficou então conhecida como "All Hallow´s Even" ou "holy evening". Eventualmente a palavra foi encurtada para "Halloween" (Hallow = Santificar). No dia 2 de novembro a Igreja celebrava o Dia de Todos os Santos com o propósito de lembrar os mortos, orando pelos mesmos a fim de ajudá-los em caso de estarem cumprindo alguma expiação no purgatório. Muitos destes costumes são agora associados ao "Halloween" como por exemplo podemos citar o costume de ir de porta em porta pedindo doces (comida). Isto era praticado na Irlanda centenas de anos atrás e para os que davam a comida a promessa de prosperidade era oferecida e para os que não davam a má sorte iria persegui-los.
Em 1800 um grupo de imigrantes Irlandeses que foi para os Estados Unidos, levou com eles o tradicional "doces ou travessuras" do Inglês “trick-or-treat” e também o hábito de esculpir a abóbora que originalmente era esculpido em um nabo, mas quando os Irlandeses descobriram a abóbora passaram a usá-la até porque não se encontrava nabo por lá.

No Brasil, nos últimos anos, o hábito de crianças irem de porta em porta pedindo "doces ou travessuras" vem mostrando uma tendência que esta tradição também vai se enraizar no Brasil.
Mas por enquanto não é ainda comum.
Nos Estados Unidos as crianças também pedem dinheiro que é levado para ONGs que distribuem alimentos para crianças pobres. Já o costume de esculpir a abóbora no Brasil se restringe a alguns locais que promovem reuniões e festas de comemoração do "Halloween". Nos Estados Unidos quase todas as residências tem uma abóbora esculpida colocada na varanda para comemorar o dia 31 de outubro, e serve para espantar os maus espíritos que possam estar vagando como alma traiçoeira.

Essas coisas podem ser resumidas em uma palavra: TRADIÇÃO. E esta é bem forte em alguns paises do mundo. No Brasil nada disto é cultuado realmente. O que existem são apenas festas para se obter dinheiro para si próprio ou para as entidades interessadas em fazer dinheiro facilmente. Não se trata, absolutamente, de uma tradição. Muito menos festa de cunho religioso ou até mesmo demoníaca, como podem alguns imaginar.
Podemos dizer que desejar "FELIZ HALLOWEEN" é desejar que você fique livre dos maus fluidos que possam interferir no seu dia a dia.